Single unified login for multiple WordPress 2.8 installs in subdirectories using cookies

i used to have a single sign on working between several WordPress sites, one in the root directory, others in subdirectories, even a few installs that ran off of subdomains. basically, you could log in to one site and you’d be logged into all of these sites.

that was before the big upgrade of WP 2.5 -

that’s right, i’m sure many out there can remember the chaos that came with upgrading your WordPress blog beyond version 2.5. there was an entirely new backend to get used to, but there were also lots of small code changes that created compatibility issues in many plugins and themes. one of the major changes was the way WordPress was to handle cookies and authentication in general which was made to be more secure. as a result, coders were offered new methods of integrating logins but (at the time) there was little to no clear, accurate documentation detailing how to achieve this task.

i spent many hours last year (with WordPress 2.5 and 2.6), and then again earlier this year (with WordPress 2.7), and then again this weekend (with WordPress 2.8).. until i finally got it working with the help of a relatively new plugin and some new blog posts describing how others attempted this now seemingly daunting task.

anyway, i thought i’d share my notes as well as the steps i took to get this working with my setup. it’s currently being used on indyish.com to unify the various WordPress installs into one cohesive multi-user site.

Note: These steps assume you’ve already got your WordPress sites setup using a shared user database. So, you can log into any of your sites individually with the same credentials, see all the same users under “Users” > “Authors & Users” – but you want to get it so logging into one site automatically logs you into all of your sites.

Therefore, you have already added the following to the wp-config.php files for any of the sites other than the root site:


define('CUSTOM_USER_TABLE','wp_users'); // shared user db
define('CUSTOM_USER_META_TABLE','wp_usermeta'); // shared usermeta

  1. To start with, you’re going to need to download and install this plugin: root Cookie Path. Make sure to activate the plugin on all of the sites (the root site, as well as any subdirectory sites).
  2. Once all your sites are using a root cookie, you need to open up the wp-config.php files for any non-root sites (ie: subdirectory sites).
  3. Now here’s the trickier part… go to your root site (ie: yourdomain.com) and get the following info from your Global Options page: AUTH_SALT and LOGGED_IN_SALT. You can find the Global Options page for your WordPress install at: http://www.yourdomain.com/wp-admin/options.php (replace “yourdomain” with your actual domain)
  4. When you have these 2 values, you need to paste them into the wp-config.php files for every single non-root site you want to integrate. Use the following syntax:

    define('AUTH_SALT', 'some-crazy-wacky-random-long-string-of-characters');
    define('LOGGED_IN_SALT', 'some-crazy-wacky-random-long-string-of-characters');
  5. Then, you need to make sure all of your sites are using the same “secret keys”. Paste that info into the wp-config.php files for each of the non-root sites you want to integrate. You can get secret keys fresh from the WordPress API page if you haven’t already added them to your wp-config.php file. It should look something like this.

    define('AUTH_KEY', 'some-crazy-wacky-random-long-string-of-characters');
    define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY', 'some-crazy-wacky-random-long-string-of-characters');
    define('LOGGED_IN_KEY', 'some-crazy-wacky-random-long-string-of-characters');
    define('NONCE_KEY', 'some-crazy-wacky-random-long-string-of-characters');
  6. Finally, add this cookie information to the wp-config.php files for all your non-root sites:

    $baseurl = 'http://www.yourdomain.com'; // replace with the actual domain name for your root site
    $cookiehash = md5($baseurl);
    define('COOKIEHASH', $cookiehash);

    define ('AUTH_COOKIE', 'wordpress_'.COOKIEHASH);
    define ('SECURE_AUTH_COOKIE', 'wordpress_sec_'.COOKIEHASH);
    define ('LOGGED_IN_COOKIE','wordpress_logged_in_'.COOKIEHASH);
    define ('TEST_COOKIE', 'wordpress_test_cookie');

That should do it!

Note: Some people have gone ahead and modified the WordPress capabilities.php file in order to get a role assigned to newly registered users, but this step is optional and requires editing a core WordPress file (a change which wouldn’t persist from one upgrade to another). I prefer to just assign a role manually to any new user that needs access to one of the non-root sites. Or, you could find another trigger to use before calling the function that sets the new role. Still, if you want to go as far as modifying core WP files, here is the code used by Kiran: (but i haven’t tried it personally)

function _init_caps() {
global $wpdb;
// $this->cap_key = $wpdb->prefix . ‘capabilities’; /* original code */
$this->cap_key = ‘wp_capabilities’; /*modified code */
$this->caps = &$this->{$this->cap_key};
if ( ! is_array( $this->caps ) )
$this->caps = array();
$this->get_role_caps();
}

Finally, here are some resources i used to help me out (most recently):

Here are some other sites (for reference) which i used earlier on this year:

Comments 66

  1. Falcon1986 wrote:

    Wow! I have been looking for a tutorial like this for quite some time now. After following your instructions, everything worked great!

    Thanks!

    Posted 24 Jul 2009 at 2:50 pm
  2. elran wrote:

    hey great!
    you’re totally welcome.

    Posted 28 Jul 2009 at 10:28 am
  3. Yongho Kim wrote:

    for me this worked only after inserting #6 code in the root site (the one with the main usertable?) as well.

    Posted 10 Aug 2009 at 1:21 pm
  4. elran wrote:

    @Yongho Kim: that’s strange.. i just double checked and i definitely did not include step #6 for the root site in my case. oh well, at least it’s working for both of us!

    Posted 10 Aug 2009 at 3:48 pm
  5. Rashid Rupani wrote:

    Able to login in multiple blogs with one user id but have to log out separately. This is a bug i guess

    Posted 28 Aug 2009 at 1:59 am
  6. elran wrote:

    make sure to clear your cookies when testing unified logins. you may still have the old/stale cookie preventing you from logging out.

    Posted 28 Aug 2009 at 9:17 am
  7. Patung wrote:

    When I have root cookie plugin enabled I can’t log out.

    When I paste #6 into the subdomain wp-config it crashes the site.

    All of my secret keys and salts are the same, they’re defined directly in the database, not in wp-config.

    Posted 05 Sep 2009 at 12:11 am
  8. elran wrote:

    @Patung :

    1) not being able to log out sometimes means you have a stale cookie – try clearing your cookies and log in again.

    2) browser crashing could also be caused by malformed or stale cookie.. maybe test it with a 2nd browser to make sure.

    3) secret keys and salts definitely need to be the same, but if the cookie hash (step #6) is different for either site then they won’t be able to read each other’s respective cookies.

    *also* – i haven’t (successfully) tested this with different subdomains – yet – only subdirectories. but the new version of root cookie plugin claims to work with both subdomains and subdirectories. so, i’m thinking that should work too. i’ll probably do a blog post about unifying WP logins using subdomains once i get thhat working with my setup.

    Posted 05 Sep 2009 at 8:47 am
  9. Patung wrote:

    Hi Elran, thanks.

    1. yes it was cookies, I cleared them and could log out even with root cookie plugin enabled.

    2. no, it’s the blank white page of death, like when you have a fatal php error. I tried spidering the page in a spider simulator and there was nothing to spider…

    3. I double checked this, and realised I had no ‘NONCE_KEY’ in either wp-config so put that in for both but makes no difference. The others are all the same, as is also the nonce_salt which you don’t mention I think.

    Anyway, before 2.8 I had this working for subdomains, I just put this in both wp-configs

    define(‘COOKIE_DOMAIN’, ‘.domain.com’);
    define(‘COOKIEPATH’, ‘/’);

    I didn’t use any plugins, just that and it worked but it doesn’t now. You might want to read http://engine.taffel.se/2008/11/18/multiblog-single-login-in-wp-26/

    Posted 05 Sep 2009 at 5:33 pm
  10. elran wrote:

    Hi Patung,

    The blank white page might be from copy/pasting code from this site to your site. That is, i’m pretty sure that WordPress filters are messing with all the single quotation marks in the code snippets i’ve provided. So, if you copy/pasted code directly from here, make sure you’ve got all UTF characters or better yet, re-type all the code additions manually..

    anyway, let us know if you eventually get this working with subdomains !

    Posted 06 Sep 2009 at 10:05 am
  11. Patung wrote:

    Yes you were right, it was ‘ so I just had to retype them…but cut a long story short I don’t think this method works for sub domains, I kept deleting all cookies and re-starting the browser but I was logged in to the back end but not the front end and it was a big mess…

    Posted 09 Sep 2009 at 1:23 am
  12. Vince wrote:

    Works great with WP 2.8.5 !
    Thanks :)

    Posted 31 Oct 2009 at 5:42 am
  13. elran wrote:

    Glad to hear that it worked for you Vince. Enjoy !

    Posted 31 Oct 2009 at 5:40 pm
  14. K M wrote:

    I am facing this error

    You do not have sufficient permissions to access this page.

    Posted 01 Nov 2009 at 10:12 am
  15. elran wrote:

    K M -

    i had this happen in some cases.

    i think this happens when 1 of the 2 WP installs is fresh and the other is not.

    either way, i solved it by manually editing the usermeta table (for the admin user) in phpMyAdmin

    i don’t have it in front of me now.. but basically, look at the serialized data for the usermeta for admin in a working WP install (this is permissions data). Then, copy/paste it into the non-working (but soon-to-be integrated) WP install. you should then be able to see the dashboard and other backend pages again.

    i could take a closer look at it, if you’re still having a problem..

    Posted 04 Nov 2009 at 4:11 pm
  16. Dolph wrote:

    I’ve got a strange problem with this setup: Unified login works fine – BUT: when logged in in subdomains I cannot access their frontend pages. I only get 404 messages. Have you got any idea where I could find a solution?

    Posted 26 Nov 2009 at 8:08 am
  17. elran wrote:

    @Dolph – have you tried rebuilding your permalinks on your subdomain sites? (or enable permalinks if you haven’t already done so). Just visiting the permalinks page in the backend will rebuild them (otherwise if you haven’t yet done so: select a permalink structure and click save).

    also, check your .htaccess files on all sites to make sure there’s nothing there that might cause problems with viewing the frontend. (similarly, check that you or your web host haven’t setup any symbolic links, or subdirectory re-mappings, etc that would affect this)

    lastly, for testing purposes: disable any plugins, themes (use the default theme), clear browser cache and cookies regularly.

    sounds like you’ve got it working but something else is conflicting in some way.

    hope that helps.

    Posted 17 Dec 2009 at 11:58 am
  18. Amit Sinha wrote:

    This is awesome..was stuck to implement this for one of my client untill i found this…great work

    Posted 12 Jan 2010 at 7:09 pm
  19. elran wrote:

    @Amit
    Thanks dude!
    seems to be working fine for me on WP 2.9.1 as well.

    Posted 13 Jan 2010 at 2:24 pm
  20. Somebody wrote:

    I was looking for this solution on a fresh 2.9.1 installation.

    Using subdomains.

    This only works if #6 was also inserted into the root site’s wp-config.php

    That make sense because otherwise, looking at the cookie information, the root site uses a different hash for the cookie name.

    So maybe you could update the post to reflect this? :)

    Posted 28 Jan 2010 at 2:37 pm
  21. elran wrote:

    @Somebody:

    hah, i was originally planning on writing a separate post for setting up unified logins with subdomains!

    but, since then, the “root Cookie Path” plugin has been updated to include both subdirectories and subdomains so there no longer seemed to be a need for an extra post.

    anyway, yes, doing as you suggested with #6 seems to make sense. although, personally, i haven’t tried it. instead, i added #6 to my subdomain’s wp-config.php (instead of the root site’s) and that worked for me. same logic though..

    i might update the post, or i might still go ahead and create a new post for it altogether. you know, just to keep things simple.

    Posted 28 Jan 2010 at 6:11 pm
  22. C-A wrote:

    This solution works like a charm for me, thanks a million.

    However, I am trying to get bbPress integration working but with very little success.

    Is there anyone who has managed to get bbPress integration to work and/or might have any tips? Would be much appreciated :)

    Posted 24 Feb 2010 at 5:47 am
  23. Yann wrote:

    Hi and thanks for sharing your tips !
    but this doesnt work for me ….
    it seems log to my non root site but i always have the message “not sufficient privileges” in it …. i dont understand why … i’m under wp 2.9.1 on both blogs and both installations are not “fresh” ones …
    thanks if you find a solution for me !

    Posted 16 Mar 2010 at 4:27 am
  24. elran wrote:

    Hi Yann,

    please see comment #15 – basically you’ll have to edit the usermeta table manually.

    hope that helps!

    Posted 16 Mar 2010 at 12:40 pm
  25. Yann wrote:

    Thanks for your answer but sorry i dont understand wich value of wich table is exactly to edit and to be replaced with what … ? sorry but i’m french and i dont understand all is written in this comment#15

    Posted 16 Mar 2010 at 5:00 pm
  26. elran wrote:

    @Yann -

    before you integrate 2 WordPress installs, pick 1 install (that works and you can log into). on that one, use an sql editor like phpMyAdmin to edit the usermeta table for the “admin” user.

    Note: Backup your database before attempting this.

    to do this, in phpMyAdmin:
    1) select [Your Database Name] -> [wp-usermeta]
    2) then, look for meta_key = “wp_capabilities” for admin user
    3) then, click “Edit” (it’s the pencil icon)
    4) then, copy/paste the meta_value into the exact same spot on the 2nd WordPress site (overwriting the old values).
    5) then, click save

    the meta_value should look something like this:

    a:1:{s:13:”administrator”;b:1;}

    that’s all i had to do to fix the problem.

    if you can’t fix the problem, i would try to integrate 2 fresh/new WordPress installs – see if that works and if you can log in – then import all the old data into the 2 systems later.

    that should do it.

    Posted 16 Mar 2010 at 5:51 pm
  27. Yann wrote:

    this is what i dont understand in what you say :
    if i overwrite the admin meta value of my root site (the one i can log in) with the admin meta value of my non root site (the one i have not enough privileges) , i think that’s my root site that i will not be able to connect no ?
    by the way thanks again to take time with my problems !

    Posted 17 Mar 2010 at 10:54 am
  28. elran wrote:

    @Yann -

    you need to do it the other way around..

    overwrite the admin meta value of your NON-root site (the one you can NOT log in to) with the admin meta value of your root site (the one you can log in to)

    Posted 17 Mar 2010 at 1:50 pm
  29. Yann wrote:

    but how can it work ? cause the usermeta table used by both sites is the root site’s one , no ?

    Posted 17 Mar 2010 at 2:19 pm
  30. elran wrote:

    yes, but permissions for each user (wp roles and capabilities) are set individually for each site (even though it’s integrated).

    so, on one site, you might have admin priviledges, but on the other site you are just a regular user.

    that is what i think the problem is, in this case.. the user’s permissions are out of sync.

    Posted 17 Mar 2010 at 5:26 pm
  31. Yann wrote:

    Grrrrrr … i tried but still doesnt work for me … :-((

    Posted 17 Mar 2010 at 5:57 pm
  32. Emily wrote:

    Thanks for this post. I kept getting the permissions error until I edited the capabilities.php file and that seemed to solve the problem.

    Everything seemed to be working fine, but then a few users emailed me saying they weren’t able to log in to the main site anymore. I tried their logins, but it just kept going right back to the login page instead of going to the admin. However I was able to log in fine with my own username. I thought maybe they needed to clear their cookies but that didn’t seem to help. Do you have any ideas why certain people would have trouble logging in but not others?

    Posted 14 Apr 2010 at 10:30 pm
  33. elran wrote:

    did you try disabling all non-related plugins? does it work for some users and not others? maybe try resetting their passwords, see if that solves it. also, check that these users have all the proper permissions – which must be setup correctly and individually for each site in a multi-WordPress setup. Oh, and try creating a new user in mutli-site mode to see if you can log in with that. It might be a problem with old accounts that used the old method of authentication and their old passwords no longer work with new versions of WP. Otherwise, disable the multi-site setup temporarily and test whether these users can log in so you can know for sure that it happens only in multi-site mode.

    Posted 15 Apr 2010 at 12:02 pm
  34. JamesGiantPeach wrote:

    Is there a possibility this could work in Mu/3.0 Multi-site? has it been tested yet?

    Posted 14 Jun 2010 at 10:30 am
  35. Jeff wrote:

    I am having trouble with 3.0 anyone have any luck?

    Posted 21 Jun 2010 at 10:58 pm
  36. Niju Mohan wrote:

    Is this working fine with wordpress 3.0?

    Posted 08 Jul 2010 at 9:26 am
  37. Niju Mohan wrote:

    Its not working with my wp 3.0 installs

    Posted 08 Jul 2010 at 5:21 pm
  38. Matias wrote:

    I have this scenario:

    I have a site (siteA.com) and a wordpress (siteB.com). In siteA.com users can register and each time one is registered it adds the same user (using curl) on siteB.com (wordpress).
    I need that when a user is logged in siteA.com it is automatically logged in siteB.com. They have different databases and domains. Is this possible? How ?

    Posted 03 Aug 2010 at 11:31 am
  39. elran wrote:

    guys, it’s true. this is still not yet tested with WordPress 3.

    though i suspect perhaps any problems have something to do with the new salt definitions in wp-config.php – so i would start by making sure all those are consistent across all sites you’re trying to get unified login working with.

    also, it’s possible that all this can now be achieved using the new multisite features merged/built into WP 3.0 – again untested.

    so please, test away, and share any experience you’ve had getting this working with WP 3.0.

    i’ll be sure to write a new post or update this one once i get a chance to test things on my own setup.

    Posted 12 Aug 2010 at 12:53 pm
  40. Daniel wrote:

    Been trying to get this to work with 3.0 but am completely lost.

    I’m getting the “You do not have sufficient permissions to access this page.”

    Can someone figure out how to get around this?

    All help would be so appreciated!

    Thanks,
    Dan

    Posted 12 Nov 2010 at 1:03 am
  41. Ian Douglas wrote:

    I followed these instructions carefully, but under WP 3.2.1 it doesn’t work for me. I had the following happen: a) I was unable to log out of sub sites at all (even if I was logged into a different account on the main site); b) logging in to the main site as a different user still doesn’t log me out of sub sites, OR log me in to the sub sites as the new user.

    I renewed the secret keys across the board (which I think basically flushes the cookies). But now when I login to main, then go to sub site, I’m not automatically logged in (which I think was the point of the tutorial).

    In addition, if I try to login to the sub sites with a newly created user ID (created on the main site) I get “ERROR: Invalid username. Lost your password?”

    So this would seem conclusive that the method is not working, at least for me.
    On one sub site, users don’t show up in Dashboard / Users.

    I can’t explain this, as I have the following function in wp-config.php for both sub sites:

    ne(‘CUSTOM_USER_TABLE’,'wp_users’); // shared user db
    define(‘CUSTOM_USER_META_TABLE’,'wp_usermeta’); // shared usermeta

    (obviously with the prefix set to that the main site is running off)

    Posted 10 Aug 2011 at 9:31 am
  42. fred wrote:

    This is the thing that I’ve been looking for so long and it worked for me on wp 3.2.1. Thanks a lot!

    Posted 22 Sep 2011 at 4:09 am
  43. Mohd Iqbal wrote:

    nice post… thank you very much elran.

    In 3.0 and above version only changes will in wp-config.php no any other page. it’s working perfectly for me.

    Posted 01 Aug 2012 at 1:02 am
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